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Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945; pronounced /ˈroʊzəvɛlt/ ROE-zə-velt;[1] also known by his initials, FDR) was the 32nd President of the United States and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war. The only American president elected to more than two terms, he forged a durable coalition that realigned American politics for decades. FDR defeated incumbent Republican Herbert Hoover in November 1932, at the depths of the Great Depression. FDR's combination of optimism and activism contributed to reviving the national spirit.[2] Working closely with Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin in leading the Allies against Germany and Japan in World War II, he died just as victory was in sight.
260px-FDR in 1933

Starting in his "First Hundred Days" in office, which began March 4, 1933, Roosevelt launched major legislation and a profusion of executive orders that gave form to the New Deal—a complex, interlocking set of programs designed to produce relief (especially government jobs for the unemployed), recovery (of the economy), and reform (through regulation of Wall Street, banks and transportation). The economy improved rapidly from 1933 to 1937, but then went into a deep recession. The bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented his packing the Supreme Court or passing much new legislation; it abolished many of the relief programs when unemployment practically ended during World War II. Most of the regulations on business were ended about 1975–85, except for the regulation of Wall Street by the Securities and Exchange Commission, which still exists. Along with several smaller programs, major surviving programs include the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which was created in 1933, and Social Security, which Congress passed in 1935.

As World War II loomed after 1938, with the Japanese invasion of China and the aggressions of Nazi Germany, FDR gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China and Britain, while remaining officially neutral. His goal was to make America the "Arsenal of Democracy" which would supply munitions to the Allies. In March 1941, Roosevelt, with Congressional approval, provided Lend-Lease aid to the countries fighting against Nazi Germany with Great Britain. He secured a near-unanimous declaration of war against Japan after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, calling it a "date which will live in infamy". He supervised the mobilization of the US economy to support the Allied war effort which saw unemployment evaporate and the industrial economy soar to heights no one ever expected.

32nd President of the United States
In office

March 4, 1933 –April 12, 1945

Vice President John N. Garner (1933–1941)

Henry A. Wallace (1941–1945) Harry S. Truman (1945)

Preceded by Herbert Hoover
Succeeded by Harry S. Truman

44th Governor of New York

In office

January 1, 1929 –December 31, 1932

Lieutenant Herbert H. Lehman
Preceded by Alfred E. Smith
Succeeded by Herbert H. Lehman

Assistant Secretary of the Navy

In office

March 17, 1913 –August 26, 1920

President Woodrow Wilson
Preceded by Beekman Winthrop
Succeeded by Gordon Woodbury

New York State Senator for Dutchess County

In office

January 1, 1911 –March 17, 1913


Born January 30, 1882(1882-01-30)

Hyde Park, New York

Died April 12, 1945 (aged 63)

Warm Springs, Georgia

Resting place Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum, Hyde Park, New York
Birth name Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Eleanor Roosevelt
Children Anna Roosevelt Halsted

James Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr. (III) Elliott Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr. John Aspinwall Roosevelt

Alma mater Harvard College

Columbia Law School

Occupation Lawyer (Corporate)
Religion Episcopal
Signature

Roosevelt dominated the American political scene, not only during the twelve years of his presidency, but for decades afterward. He orchestrated the realignment of voters that created the Fifth Party System. FDR's New Deal Coalition united together labor unions, big city machines, white ethnics, African Americans and rural white Southerners. Roosevelt's diplomatic impact also resonated on the world stage long after his death, with the United Nations and Bretton Woods as examples of his administration's wide-ranging impact. Roosevelt is consistently rated by scholars as one of the greatest U.S. Presidents.[3]